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The government of India levies a tax when there is a transfer of ownership of real estate or property. This tax is referred to as stamp duty.
Stamp duty is levied on transactions involving residential property, commercial property and freehold or leasehold properties. It is imposed by states and therefore, the rates will vary from one state to another. Stamp duty is payable as per the provisions of Section 3 of the Indian Stamp Act, 1899. The extent to which the tax amount is payable depends on the value of the house or property during the time of registration. It will further vary depending on the purpose that the property serves and the type of buyer.
It must be noted that there are other documents that also require stamp duty. Besides property transactions, stamp duty is levied on shares, debentures, bill of exchange, conveyance deed, hire purchase, promissory note and movable and immovable assets, among others.
The Indian Stamp Act, 1899, is a fiscal statute that lays down the law with relation to the tax levied in the form of stamps on instruments recording transactions. Section 3 of the Act which reads “Instruments chargeable with duty” lists the regulations governing payment of stamp duty.
Stamp duty calculators are designed to help users assess the stamp duty applicable towards properties in different states across the nation. Individuals will have to provide details like property value and name of the state to calculate the stamp duty.
For instance: If a property of Rs. 50,00,000 is located in Maharashtra, the stamp duty value will be Rs. 1,94,000. If the property is situated is Tamil Nadu, the stamp duty value will be Rs. 4,00,000. (Source: Ready Reckoner)
Following are some of the conditions associated with payment of stamp duty:
Some of the documents that require stamp duty are as follows:
The individual who is buying a property is required to pay a stamp duty during the time of registration of the said property. The amount will differ from one state to another.
Calculation of Stamp Duty Rates: Every state in the country has a different stamp duty rate structure. Generally, the duty is imposed on the basis of the current market value of the concerned property. The rates are assessed at the start of each year and made public via the stamp duty ready reckoner.
The government has introduced the concept of e-stamping for the purpose of determining a more accurate value of duty in case of immovable property. In certain states, like Delhi, all stamp duty is required to be paid through e-stamping. A number of parameters are taken into consideration under the e-stamping procedure to determine the stamp duty rates in a particular region.
|City||Stamp duty rate|
|Stamp duty in Mumbai||3% to 6%|
|Stamp duty in Pune||Contnent R2C2|
|Stamp duty in Hyderabad||4.00%|
|Stamp duty in Chennai||7%|
|Stamp duty in Bengaluru||5%|
|Stamp duty in Delhi||4% to 6%|
|Stamp duty in Ahmedabad||4.90%|
|Stamp duty in Kolkata||5% to 7%|
Authorities factor in multiple parameters to calculate stamp duty charges on property transactions. Some of them have been listed below:
Stamp duty as well as registration charges are two hefty expenses that an individual will have to incur while buying a house. To provide some relief, the government has included stamp duty and registration expenses paid as part of deductions from gross income under Section 80C of the Income Tax Act, 1961, According to this section, an individual can claim a tax deduction for stamp duty, registration fee and other expenses incurred while buying a house. The maximum deduction amount that is allowed under this section is Rs.1,50,000. This deduction has to be claimed from gross total income during the financial year that the expenses have been borne. Expense for earlier years cannot be claimed as a tax deduction. E.g. Mr. X buys a property and pay its stamp duty and registration charges on 15th September 2018. He can claim a tax deduction on these expenses under Section 80C only in FY 2018-19.
What is the validity of stamp papers?
With effect from 01/12/1989, the validity of stamp papers is 6 months. Stamp papers that aren't used within this time period shall be regarded as invalid.
Why is stamp duty necessary?
Stamp duty serves as an evidence for sale or purchase of a property. It can be admitted as evidence in court.
How should documents stamped with impressed stamp be written?
According to Section 13 of the Indian Stamp Act, 1899, "Every instrument written upon paper stamped with an impressed stamp shall be written in such manner that the stamp may appear on the face of the instrument and cannot be used for or applied to any other instrument." This means that the individual will need to cancel the affixed adhesive stamp by writing his or her name or initials on or across the stamp.
When can an individual ask for refund of stamp duty?
According to the provisions of the Indian Stamp Act, 1899, an individual can claim a refund of stamp duty under the following circumstances:
Can stamp duty be paid in India for documents that are executed outside the country?
Yes. According to Section 18 of the Indian Stamp Act, 1899, any instrument executed out of India "and not being a bill of exchange or promissory note, may be stamped within three months, after it has been first received in [India]."
Is stamp duty included in home loan?
No, stamp duty is not included in the home loan amount sanctioned by banks and other financial institutions. This is an out-of-pocket expense which needs to be borne by the buyer.
Can a stamp paper which has been used for one purpose be again used for another transaction?
No. A stamp paper that has already been used for a purpose cannot be used again to serve another purpose.
What are the consequences in case stamp duty is not paid?
In the event an individual fails to pay stamp duty, the document on which it is leviable cannot be accepted or received as evidence. Transactions shall not be considered as valid if done on the basis of instrument that is not duly stamped. In case the instrument is presented to any public officer, it will be impounded. Additionally, penalty will be levied.