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India has been experiencing a rapid demographic, environmental and lifestyle-related transitions. As a result, there has been a major transition in the magnitude and pattern of diseases across the nation. While cases of communicable diseases and reproductive and nutritional disorders have seen a decline, there has been a rise in non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including chronic lung diseases, heart ailments, cancer and diabetes. 60% of deaths are the result of NCDs in the country. Over half of death cases due to NCDs are premature affecting productive population. Effective control of NCDs is necessary due to economic and social implications caused by premature deaths and disabilities.
For the purpose of preventing and controlling major NCDs, the National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) was launched in 2010 in 100 districts across 21 states. The programme focuses on health promotion, early diagnosis, management and referral of cases, in addition to strengthening the infrastructure and capacity building.
(Note - Information on this page has been sourced from the websites of National Health Systems Resource Centre and Directorate General of Health Services.)
The features and benefits of the programme are as follows:
The objectives of the programme are as follows:
There is the Tertiary Care Cancer Centers Scheme that aims to establish/strengthen 20 State Cancer Institutes and 50 TCCCs for providing comprehensive cancer care in the nation. There is a provision for allowing a ‘one time grant’ of Rs. 120 crores per SCI and Rs. 45 crores per TCCC, which is to be utilized for building construction and procurement of equipment, with the Centre to State share in the ratio of 60:40 (other than for North-Eastern and Hilly States, where the ratio is 90:10).
|Health Facility||Packages of Services|
|PHC||• ‘Population based/Opportunistic’ Screening of diabetes, hypertension and three common cancers - breast, oral, and cervical. |
• Clinical diagnosis and treatment of common NCDs, including diabetes and hypertension, referral of complicated cases of DM/HTN to CHC/DH.
• Identification of early signs of common cancer.
|Sub Centre||• Generate awareness of early warning signs of common cancer and other risk factors of NCDs. |
• ‘Population based/Opportunistic’ Screening of common NCDs.
|CHC/FRU||• Early diagnosis via clinical and laboratory investigations. |
• Diagnostics facilities: Total Cholesterol, Lipid Profile, Blood sugar, Blood Urea, Creatinine, X-Ray, ECG and USG Opportunistic’ Screening of common cancers - Oral, Breast and Cervix.
• Management of common NCDs
• Referral of complicated cases to higher healthcare facility
|Medical College||Mentoring district hospitals, diabetes, early diagnosis and management of cancer, CVDS and other associated illnesses, health personnel training, operational research|
|District Hospital||• Diagnosis and management of cases of CVDs, COPD Stroke, Diabetes, and Cancer, including emergency services especially for Myocardial Infarction & Stroke. |
• Lab. investigations and diagnostics: Blood sugar, Lipid Profile, KFT, LFT, X-Ray, ECG, USG ECHO, CT Scan, MRI, etc.
• Referral of complicated cases to higher healthcare facility. ‘Opportunistic’ Screening of NCDs.
• Follow-up chemotherapy for cancer cases, rehabilitation and physiotherapy services.
|Tertiary Cancer Centre||• Mentoring of district hospital and outreach activities, |
• Training health personnel
• Operational research
The programme and interventions would create a comprehensive sustainable system for bringing down the rapid rise of non-communicable diseases, disabilities and deaths as a result of NCDs. The below outcomes are expected.
Non-communicable diseases are presently the leading cause of preventable deaths and disability in the country. To control and prevent this, the government introduced the National Programme for the Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) in 2010. This programme was integrated with the National Health Mission in 2013 to allow opportunistic screening for common NCDs, at District and CHC levels, via NCD clinics.